The 58th Shriram Institute Founder Memorial Lecture was delivered by Prof. Pramod Kumar Garg, Head, Department of Gastroenterology, AIIMS, Delhi on ‘Improving Human Health through Biomedical Research: Future Beckons Us’ on April 26, 2024.

Geotechnical Engineering & Soil Mechanics

Geotechnical Engineering & Soil Testing Laboratory

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering concerned with construction on or in the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.

Soil, one of the major part of is the loose surface material consisting of inorganic particles and organic matter that covers most of the land surface. Soil provides the structural support and the source of water and nutrients for plants used in agriculture.  Soil makes up the outermost layer of our planet. Topsoil is the most productive soil layer.

Mainly 5 size fractions are used to describe the inorganic part of the soil i.e. Gravel, Coarse Sand , Fine Sand, Silt & Clay . The proportion of these components determines if a soil is a sand, loam or clay or any combination of these .Based upon this Texture of soil, it can be of several types :

Sand – A sand has a loose gritty feel and does not stick together. Individual sand grains can be seen or felt.

Loamy Sand – In a loamy sand particles barely stick together and a moulded piece of soil just holds its shape.

Sandy Loam – A sandy loam sticks together more than a loamy sand but can be easily broken. Individual sand grains can be felt and heard if a wet sample is rubbed between the index finger and thumb and held close to the ear.

Silty Loam – A silty loam is like a loam but has a smooth silky feel when a moist sample is pushed between the index finger and thumb. On drying a sample can form a hard lump but this may be broken by hand.

Loam – A loam breaks into crumbs but will tend to stick together. Sand grains cannot be felt in a moist sample which when squeezed will retain its shape when handled freely. Loams are usually soft to the feel.

Sandy Clay Loam – A sandy clay loam is like a clay loam but sand grains can be felt (and heard – see Sandy Loam)

Silty Clay Loam – A silty clay loam is like a clay loam but silty as well and smooth to the touch.

Clay Loam – More easily moulded into a shape than a loam, a clay loam rolls out to a thin ribbon between the palms while a loam will break-up. When dry a clay loam will form a lump but is not as tough to break as a clay.

Sandy Clay – A sandy clay is like a clay but sand grains can be felt (and heard – see Sandy Loam).

Silty Clay – A silty clay is like a clay but smoother.

Clay – Clays are tough and can be moulded into shapes when moist. Clays form a long flexible ribbon when rubbed between the palms and the ribbon can often be bent into a “U” shape without breaking. Clays dry into very hard clods.

The organic matter of soil usually makes up less than 10% by weight of soil. Plants living in soil continually add organic matter in the form of roots and debris. Decomposition of this organic matter by microbial activity releases nutrients for the growth of other plants. The organic matter content of a soil depends on the rates of organic matter addition and decomposition

We provide the following soil analysis & and services:

Physical Properties Chemical Properties Strength & Stability studies Index Properties Geo Technical Survey   Contaminants
Soil Texture pH Direct Shear Test Liquid Limit Soil Bearing Capacity Leachability
Classification Conductivity Triaxial Strength Plastic Limit Plate load test

(Load bearing Capacity)

Heavy Metals
Compaction Salinity Consolidation Plasticity Index Standard Penetration test Pesticides
Porosity Cation Exchange Capacity Proctor Test (OMC & MDD) Linear  & Volumetric Shrinkage Electrical Resistivity VOC’s
Permeability Organic Matter California Bearing Ratio (lab & Field) Density Dyanamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT)
Water Holding Capacity Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio Unconfined Compressive Strength Particle Density Bore logging
Void Ratio Gypsum Dry Bulk Density Specific Gravity
Moisture Soil Nutrients Particle size distribution
Swelling pressure Minerological Analysis Sand Equivalent Value
Free Swell Index Sedimentation
Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) Grain Size Analysis
Uniformity coefficient



  • Triaxial shear Strength unit
  • Automatic Direct Shear Unit
  • Consolidation unit
  • Soil Permeability unit
  • CBR unit
  • Earth Resistivity Meter
  • Core Cutters for Soil compaction
  • Plate load unit
  • Safe bearing capacity unit with load truss
  • Standard Penetration Test unit
  • Grain size analyzer
  • Shrinkage Limit unit
  • Swell test unit
  • Casagrande units
  • Cone Penetrometer
  • Sand Equivalent Value unit
  • Soil Hydrometers
  • Automatic compactors
  • Compressive Strength Machines
  • Atomic Absorption spectrophotometers
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma
  • UV – Visible spectrophotometer
  • GC & GC – MS
  • pH Metes
  • Conductivity meters
  • Air Ovens
  • Weighing Balances
  • Specific Gravity units
  • Kjheldal assembly



  • Soil investigations at NOIDA UP, Nuh Haryana, IMT  Manesar, Sohna Haryana, Gjraula UP , Colleges of University of Delhi
  • Geotechnical Investigations including Plate Load test , Safe Bearing Capacity , Load bearing Capacity in Delhi, NCR and neighboring states
  • Soil Investigations & Load Bearing Capacity For Uttrakhand Municipal Corporation
  • Investigations of Soil Quality & groundwater at Pant Nagar, Uttrakhand, Power House, Rampur, UP
  • Soil investigations at different sites at Nagar Panchyat , Didihat ,Uttrakhand
  • Field test for determination of modulus of sub-grade reaction (K-value) and CBR For Airport Authority of India
  • Geo-Technical Investigation to evaluate bearing capacity of soil at Proposed Site to Construct Auditorium and Academic Blocks
  • Quality evaluation of soil used for construction of road in resettlement colonies in Delhi
  • Quality evaluation of soil used for construction of high-rise buildings in NCR region.

In –situ Sub-soil penetration resistance characteristics studies.

Send us a query

Need help or have a question?


Contact Us

We love your feedback Tell us what you think of our website Feedback