Shriram Institute for Industrial Research Shriram Institute for Industrial Research Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research
Shriram Institute for Industrial Research

Shriram Institute for Industrial Research

Food, Farm and Herbal Products

The section dealing with the food and farm products focuses on the following thrust areas :
» Quality evaluation of various raw and processed food products
» Quality evaluation of food additives and food packaging materials
» Method development and validation of analytical techniques
» Studies on product differentiation
» Shelf life / stability studies of products at both ambient and accelerated conditions
» Inspection and certification of product quality
» Certification of packaging materials for food products
» Certification of materials used for serving food products
» Certification of organic food
» Evaluation of contaminants in foods
» Development of food products for special purpose

What are the various categories of food products usually analysed at SRI ?
» Functional foods
» Milk and dairy products
» Spices and Condiments
» Raw and processed fruits and vegetables
» Cereals and pulses
» Sugar and confectionery
» Food additives
» Vegetable oils and fats
» Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages
» Meat and meat products
» Egg and poultry products
» Food packaging materials
» Marine products
» Beverages including alcoholic

What do you mean by quality of food ?
Quality of food can be defined as specific criteria, which can be taken into account for a particular food to be used for an intended purpose.

What are the various factors which contribute towards quality of food ?
The various factors contributing towards quality of food are :
» Appearance
» Colour
» Taste
» Odour
» Nutritional value
» Adulterants
» Contaminants (Physical, Chemical & Microbiological)
» Hygiene

Why is it necessary to analyze and certify food products before or after processing ?
It is necessary to analyze and certify food products before or after processing :
» To know the quality of raw materials and final products,
» To understand occurrence of any physicochemical changes during processing or storage, and
» To ensure purity, freshness and safety of the food products at the time of consumption.

What are the quality Norms and Protocols followed for analysis ?
Analysis is done as per both National and International Standards with the following major protocols :
» Bureau of Indian Standards
» Agricultural Markings
» Prevention of Food Adulteration Act
» Fruit Product Order
» Association of Official Analytical Chemists International
» American Association of Cereal Chemists
» American Oil Chemist's Society
» American Spice Trade Association
» American Dry Products Institute
» American Public Health Association
» SriLanka Standard Institution
» In-house validated methods and procedures
» Party's specifications

What are various parameters evaluated for certifying quality of food ?
In order to ensure the right quality of various food products, several parameters are evaluated as given below :

Test parameters Methodology adopted Applicability

PHYSICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
Refraction Sieve test Flour
Insect infestation Visual observation Cereals, pulses
Admixture Visual observation Cereals, pulses
Colour on Lovibond scale Lovibond Tintometer Oil, fat,
Bellier turbidity temperature Visual Oils
Optical rotation Polarimeter Sugar, Syrup, Oil & fat
Refractive Index Abbe Refractometer Oil & fat, Sugar syrup
Scorched particles Scorched particle tester Milk powder
pH Digital pH meter Most of food products
Specific gravity Specific gravity bottle Oils, Alcoholic beverages
Microscopic Examination Compound Microscope Honey, Starch products
Water absorption capacity Remi Centrifuge Fiber, Protein
Oil absorption capacity Remi Centrifuge Fiber, protein
Falling Number Falling Number Apparatus Wheat flour
Elasticity & Extensibility of Dough Alveo-Consistograph Wheat flour
Viscosity Hoake viscometer Ostwald viscometer Brookefield viscometer Fat & oil, fruit pulp

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
Moisture Hot air oven
Vacuum oven
Karl Fischer titer
Dean & Stark
Most of the food products, Animal feeds
Fat or oil Chemical Most of the food products, Animal feeds
Protein Chemical Most of the food products, Animal feeds
Starch Chemical Starch containing products
Sugars Chemical, HPLC Sugar, Beverages, Confectioneries, other food products
Cellulose Spectrophotometer Vegetables, fruits, feed, fiber
Ethyl alcohol Chemical Alcoholic beverages
Methyl alcohol GC Alcoholic beverages
Higher alcohols Spectrophotometer GC /Chemical Alcoholic beverages
Esters GC Alcoholic beverages
Total nitrogen Kjeldahl Unit Food & feed products
Aldehydes, furfurals GC Alcoholic drinks & beverages, Honey
Ash Muffle furnace Food & feed products
Crude fiber Chemical Animal feeds, Bakery & Confectionery, Cereals, Pulses, Starch & starchy products
Dietary fiber Enzymatic Functional foods, Bakery & Confectionery, Cereals, Pulses
Soluble fiber Chemical Functional foods, Bakery & Confectionery, Cereals, Pulses
Insoluble fiber Chemical Functional foods, Bakery & Confectionery, Cereals, Pulses
Pectin Chemical Fruit & vegetable products
Amino acid profile HPLC Infant food, Neutraceuticals
Fatty acid profile GC Vegetable oils and fat, egg
trans-Fatty acids GC FTIR Vegetable oils, Ghee
Water and oil soluble vitamins HPLC Spectroflourometer Infants, Herbal drinks, Infant food
Phytochemicals TLC HPLC Herbal products, Functional foods
Flavinoids TLC Spectrophotometer Neutraceuticals
Alkaloids Chemical Tobacco products, Tea & Coffee
Acid insoluble ash Chemical  
Whey protein nitrogen index Chemical Milk powder
Phosphatase activity Spectrophotometer Milk and milk powder
Alpha amylase activity Falling Number / Spectrophotometer Cereal flour, Barley, Malt
b -Carotene HPLC Spectrophotometer Vegetable oils, meat
Menthol GC Pan masala, Tobacco products
Tannin Spectrophotometer Chemical Tea, Coffee, Arecanut (Betelnut)
Caffeine HPLC Spectrophotometer Coffee, Tea, Carbonated beverages
Cholesterol , Phyto-sterols HPLC GC Spectrophotometer Egg, ghee, vegetable oils
Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Manganese, Zinc, Silver, Gold, etc. AAS Raw and processed food products
Chloride, Fluoride, Cyanide, Iodide, etc. Specific ion analyser Processed food products
METALLIC CONTAMINANTS
Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Tin, Aluminum, Nickel, Iron, etc. AAS Food products, feed, additives, Canned foods

BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS
E. coli, Samonella, S. aureus, Shigella,Campylobacter,Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas, Clostridium sp. Microbiological methods ELISA Dairy products, processed food products
Enterotoxin, Mycotoxins (Alfatoxins, Ochratoxin) HPLC / ELISA Peanuts, Animal feeds, Milk

DRUGS & HORMONES
Chloramphenicol LC-MS-MS Milk, Honey
Nitrofurans (Furazolidone, Furatadone, Nitrofurantoin, Nitrofurazone) LC-MS-MS Milk, Honey
Sulfonamide (Sulfadiazine, Sulfadimethoxine, Sulfadoxine, Sulfamerazine, Sulfanilamide, Sulfamethoxy pyridazine, Sulfathiazol, Trimethoprim) LC-MS-MS Milk, Honey
Streptomycin LC-MS-MS Milk, Honey
Tetracycline (Tetracyclin, Oxytetracyclin, Chlortetracyclin, Doxycyclin) LC-MS-MS Milk, Honey
Oxytocin HPLC / RIA Milk
Ronidazole LC-MS-MS Milk
b -lactum ELISA Milk
Steroids TLC Herbal products
RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS
Cs-134, Cs-137, I-131, Sr-90, Am-241, Pt-239 Alpha, Beta and Gamma Counter Milk powder, Chilly, fruits, vegetables, processed food products
CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS
Dioxins HPLC Milk powder
RESIDUAL PESTICIDES
Organochlorine compounds (Hexachlorobenzene,Chlorobenzilate , pp-DDT, op-DDT, pp-DDE, pp-DDD, HCH (all isomers), Lindane, Vinclozolin) GC-MS Raw and processed food products, Animal feeds
Organophosphorus compounds (Coumaphos, Malathion, Phosalone) GC-MS Raw and processed food products, Animal feeds
Pyrethriod compounds (Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Permethrin, Fenvalerate, Fluvalinate) GC-MS Raw and processed food products, Animal feeds
Carbamates (Carbofuran, Propoxur, carbaryl) GC-MS Raw and processed food products, Animal feeds
Miscellaneous compounds (Amitraz, Bromopropylate, Chinomethionine) GC-MS Raw and processed food products, Animal feeds
FOOD ADDITIVES
TBHQ, BHA, BHT HPLC GC-MS Spectrophotometer Oil and fat, fat-rich products
monoglycerides Chemical Processed food products
Emulsifiers Chemical Processed food products
Artificial & natural colours HPLC TLC Spectrophotometer Processed food products
Artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, etc.) HPLC Carbonated beverages, Low calorie products
Benzoic acid, Sorbic acid, Propionic acid Chemical Processed food products

ADULTERANTS
Gambier TLC Catechu
Urea Spectophotometer Milk
Neutralizer Chemical Milk
Starch Chemical Spectrophotometer Milk
Preservatives
(Fomaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide)
HPLC/Spectrophotometer Food products
Detergents Chemical Milk
Argemone TLC Mustard oil
Mineral oil, Animal body fat TLC/FTIR Vegetable oil, Ghee, processed food products
Banned / Non-permitted dyes & colours HPLC/ LC-MS-MS Processed food products, Vegetables

PACKAGING MATERIALS
Tin, Chromium AAS Tin plate
Sulphide stain Chemical Food cans
Laquer Physical Chemical Tin cans
Migration tests Chemical Food grade plastics
Heavy metals like Pb, As, Cd, Se, Ba, AAS Coloured plastics
Water vapour permeability Humidity chamber Plastics
Identification of plastic materials Chemical FTIR DSC Food packaging materials
Physical tests Thickness gauge
Universal testing machine
Elmendrof tear tester
Dart impact tester
Plastic packages



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